Urgup is in the center of the famous Capadokian tufa landscape. The large tufa rocks conceal churches, monasteries, eremites, cells and dwellings. The geological phenomenon was caused by volcanic eruptions ejecting masses of ash which later were covered by streams of lava which in turn cooled, hardened and became fissured. Until the 1970’s a weaving school operated here which, above all, trained Turkish women who had been recolated from Macedonia during the population exchange in 1923. Today rugs are woven on a cotton warp with wool , using the Turkish or Persian knot.